Sunday, September 22, 2019
Dietary Supplements Report Essay Dietary supplements are products intended for ingestion as supplements to the diet. Dietary supplements can have vitamins, herbs, enzymes, extracts, plant substances, amino acids, botanicals, and concentrates. Supplements are beneficial to the body because they can enhance the nutrients in foods, aid in weight loss, provide energy, cure illnesses, optimize health, and protect against diseases. If a person does not consume enough nutrients because of a disease or eating habits dietary supplements are extremely beneficial. There are certain groups that benefit most from dietary supplements; pregnant women, vegetarians, dieters, and the elderly. An increase of folic acid and iron is needed to reduce the risk of defects and prevent anemia. Vegetarians should take vitamin B12 because they do not eat animal foods which contain more vitamin B12 than any other food source. If a person eats less than 1200 calories when on a diet, they will not get the amount of nutrients needed. If dieters take a multi-vitamin they will meet the daily recommendations for nutrients. Anyone over the age of 50 should take calcium, Vitamin D, and B12 to maintain a healthy life. Calcium and vitamin D will help keep the bones strong, lower blood pressure, and prevent diseases like osteoporosis and multiple sclerosis. Vitamin B12 will promote heart health and fight fatigue. There are many risks when taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplements are not regulated or tested by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for side effects before they are available to consumers (Ã¢â¬Å"The skinny on dietary supplements,Ã¢â¬ 2008). Dietary supplements are also harmful because they contain chemicals that can be harmful. Some supplements contain non-essential hormones and enzymes. Dietary supplements may cause medications, over-the-counter or prescribed, to work differently or not at all. When taking any supplement it is important to read the label and ask a physician before taking the supplement to reduce chances of toxicity. Many people think dietary supplements provide all the nutrients needed to support a healthy diet; they are only part of a ealthy diet (Grosvenor, 2006). As stated earlier, the government does not regulate dietary supplements as they do other foods and drugs (U. S. Food and Drug Administration: Dietary Supplements, 2013). In 1994 the government created the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). The act states manufacturers are responsible for ensuring the product is safe before it is put on the market. If the product is unsafe after it is on the market the FDA is respon sible for taking action to correct the issue. The FDA is responsible for providing product information and literature. It is the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to ensure all ingredients are listed on the labels of the product and the information is true. The manufacturer has to submit reports for any supplement that has any type of negative reaction. The FDA implemented a Dietary Supplement Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMPs) that all personnel in the company must follow to ensure quality control. Supplements are needed by people with life-threatening diseases like kidney failure. People that have kidney failure, depending on the type of dialysis they use, peritoneal or hemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis uses osmosis and diffusion through the peritoneal cavity to remove waste and fluid; this process causes a lack of potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Hemodialysis uses an artificial kidney to remove wastes and fluids from the blood; this process causes a lack of phosphorus, iron, and epogen. The common bond between both types of dialysis is the lack of phosphorus. Phosphorus supplements are used to strengthen the bones of dialysis patients, prevent renal bone disease, and keep the heart healthy. The dose varies from patient to patient, depending on the food intake. If the patient does not take the prescribed dose they experience many different effects. If too much of the phosphorus supplement is ingested, itching will occur. If not enough phosphorus is ingested, weakness will occur and bones will begin to get brittle causing them to break.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Differences in Laminated Dough Essay Laminated dough is made by incasing fat in dough and taking it through a series of folds, rolling and turns. These things produce the layers of fat in between sheets of dough. The leavening in laminated dough comes most from the steam generated by the moisture from the fat. Three main types of laminated dough are danish, croissant, and puff pastry. So if all these doughs are laminated dough, what makes them different from one another? Croissant dough and danish dough are very similar, both containing yeast. Croissant dough is considered lean dough because the detrempe contains only flour, salt, water and yeast. Danish dough, however, is considered rich because it contains eggs, dairy, and sometimes sugar. Detrempe refers to strictly the dough part of the pastry before the RIF (roll in fat) is added. Puff pastry differs from croissant and danish dough because it contains no yeast and is risen only by the steam created from the moisture of the fat. Puff pastry containing more butter and no yeast results in a product that has a flaky and buttery texture that almost melts in your mouth. Danish and croissant dough containing yeast, results in a chewier texture that has slightly less flakiness to it. Some people go as far as substituting danish dough for puff pastry dough but when making classic pastry its best to stick to the dough that is originally used. After all, these doughs are made of different components resulting in slightly different flavors and textures. Works Cited: CakeSpy. Seeking Sweetness in Everyday Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Nov. 2012. http://www.cakespy.com/blog-old/2008/6/29/dough-you-love-me-a-laminated-pastry-dough-faq-and-a-daring.html. Lamination. Baking Recipes. Learn to Bake. Baking Help. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Nov. 2012. http://baking911.com/quick-guide/baking-terms/lamination.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Airport Planning, Operations and Management Lakshmi Vadlamoodi In Airport Development planning, what is the importance of an airport master plan, what is its purpose and what are some of the challenges that may be faced in its development? An Airport Master plan is a document which provides an overview of the airport, and discusses the long-term issues using the current existing plan (Ruiz-Celada, 2014). There are many elements that contribute towards airport development which includes environmental factors, land use, government, route development, and many other factors (Ruiz-Celada, 2014). The Purpose of a Master plan is to provide future vision and is used to predict future problems. Master Plan should be thoroughly evaluated every five years or more often if needed (De Groot, 2017). It is also used to depict the range of cost for the airport growth, so that it helpful for planning financially (Skipp, 2006). The Master plan provides the public the need of the airport and the potential uses (Airport Plan, 2016). It also provides details about the development process (or a big picture) of the airport, the precautions taken and the standards maintained (Growth forecasts and developments objectives, 2014). However, there are challenging as well. Some of the major challenges faced when planning includes budgeting for buying new material, which are expensive; constantly upgrading technology trends (Glass Flight Deck); passenger forecasting (uncertainty of passenger capacity); and ultimately the revenue (Stringfellow, 2013). For example, Sydney airports guiding principle is to maximize benefits for the passengers and the aviation community considering the stakeholders as well. Balancing of the activity more evenly throughout the airfield, terminals and roads reduce congestion and improve terminal infrastructure utilisation (De Groot, 2017). Another example is Melbourne Airports Master Plan, which is a Mid-term Development plan. Its concept provides a snapshot of the future passenger traffic which increases to 64 million (Passengers per year) by 2033. The Master Plan also states that the Domestic and the International terminals are being merged soon (De Groot, 2017). Therefore, Melbourne Airport uses its Master Plan to develop their airports revenue. Thus, a Master Plan plays a vital role in Airport Development. Explain the importance of non-aeronautical revenue for airports and the challenges faced by contemporary airports in planning for the future generation of non-aeronautical revenue? Contemporary airports struggle to get profits if they continue to rely on their passengers and airlines for profit, hence airports are diversifying their sources of income through Non-Aeronautical Revenue (Marello, 2015). It is the income of the airport which excludes aeronautical activity such as commercial flying, as this is a dominant source of income which provides profits for the airport business (Non-Aeronautical Revenue, 2013). They are acquired from sources like parking lots, Car rentals, accommodation, retail, food/beverage and duty-free shops on the airport land. They are also increasing the freight and cargo facilities to expand their sources of income (Marello, 2015). Research says that 40% of an average global airports revenue is derived from the Non-Aeronautical Revenue sector (Concessionaire Analyser+, 2016). Increasing pressure on aeronautical revenues have been proved to be beneficial for promoting airports to further develop alternative revenue sources, which results in the increase of the profit margin (Concessionaire Analyser+, 2016). However, the global airports revenue sector will continue to face challenges ranging from pressure on passenger-driven non-aeronautical revenues to a possible oversupply of airport retail space (Lee, 2015). Non-aeronautical sector has therefore turn out to be a key element which influences the airports performance mostly (Non-aeronautical Revenue, 2007). Car parks, Car rentals and accommodation are fast-growing sources of revenue for the airports (De Groot, 2017). A total of 22% of airports car park is contributed towards Non-aeronautical revenue, at Brisbane airport (De Groot, 2017). Airports predict future passenger traffic, and the air traffic for estimating the investment in improving the infrastructure of the airport, as traffic forecasts provide criteria for both facility and financial planning (De Groot, 2017). The influence of Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) has also influenced in increasing attention on Non-aeronautical sector (Assessing the Non-Aviation Performance, 2008). The global airports must aim to attract new target market into the duty-free shops; food and beverage (Lee, 2015).ÃâÃ Also, it must aim to expand the target market further for it to increase the revenue and ultimately, the profit margin. How does the dominance of airport security challenge planning for non-aeronautical revenue generation by contemporary airport management and how can it be better managed in the future? There are possible increased threats in the contemporary times, especially at the airports. It is said that airport security plays an important role in a passengers journey (Lee, 2015). Security is increasing in Aviation to make passengers feel secured and easier for them to travel. The industry is implementing many new methods of security to minimise the risk at an airport and meet the new safety standards made (The challenge for airline security, 2017). Airports are always looking to improve the efficiency of the airport security. When evaluating an airport, some key elements which need to be taken account are the potential threats such as thefts and attacks, environmental protestors such as terrorist attacks which can be harmful for the airport equipment such as the aircraft (Improving airport security effectiveness, 2017). For instance, there was a failed bomb attack in a flight from Amsterdam and was ready to land in Detroit in 2009. It was stated that the suspect was declared in the Not-to-fly category before this flight. The investigators wonder how he was cleared from the airport security at Amsterdam (TheCostaRicaFrog, 2009). Hence why, airport security is a top priority and a challenge for most of the airports (Security and Customs, 2017). The global airports have developed a better security system after that incident. It can also be a challenge because to make airports more safe and secured, the management need to invest more, thus the consequence could result in low profit margin. For improving airport security, there are a list of prohibited items which cannot be taken in the cabin luggage such as harmful substances and sharp objects. If any suspected/restricted objects are detected, then the passengers luggage will be individually verified (Airport security measures, 2017). The Airport security is a big sector for a passenger before they reach the boarding area to embark an aircraft. Furthermore, Passengers who are proceeding to the boarding area must remove all the electronic gadgets from their luggage and scan it through separately (Airport security measures, 2017). Predicting the passenger traffic and future air traffic will also help in planning financially for investing in the airport security. The predictions can be obtained by major airline manufactures. Overall, there are challenges in everything, provided the necessary precautions are taken (De Groot, 2017). References Airport plan Western Sydney Airport. (2016). Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://westernsydneyairport.gov.au/files/Western_Sydney_Airport_Plan.pdf Airport security measures. (2017). Retrieved March 23, 2017, from http://caen-airport.com/airport-security-measures Assessing the Non-Aviation Performance of Selected US airports. (2008). Retrieved March 15, 2017, from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/jmueller/gapprojekt/downloads/gap_papers/assessingnonaviation.pdf Concessionaire Analyser+. (2016). Retrieved March 24, 2017, from https://concessionaireanalyzer.com/airports/non-aeronautical-revenues/ De Groot, R. (2017). Week 1,2 3 Lectures. Retrieved from Griffith university 1503NSC Airport Planning, Operations and Management Lecture slides. Growth forecasts and developments objectives. (2014). Retrieved March 10, 2017, from http://www.bne.com.au/sites/all/files/content/files/Chapter%205%20Growth%20Forecasts%20and%20Development%20Objectives%20(2MB).pdf Improving airport security effectiveness. (2017). Retrieved March 21, 2017, https://www.sourcesecurity.com/news/articles/co-306-ga.6373.html Lee, J. (2015). Five key challenges of the global airport non-aeronautical revenues business. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/five-key-challenges-global-airport-non-aeronautical-revenues-lee Marello, P. (2015). Non-Aeronautical Revenue Becoming Increasingly Important at Airports. Retrieved from the Routes Online website: http://www.routesonline.com/news/29/breaking-news/248502/non-aeronautical-revenue-becoming-increasingly-important-at-airports/ Non-aeronautical Revenue in the Airport Business. (2007). Retrieved March 19, 2017, from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~jmueller/gapprojekt/downloads/gap_papers/Performance_Measurement_02_11_07.pdf Non-Aeronautical Revenue. (2013). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/non-aeronautical_revenue-september2013.pdf Ruiz-Celada, D. (2014). Introduction to Airport Planning: The Master Plan. Retrieved from the New Aviation Insider website:ÃâÃ https://newairportinsider.com/introduction-to-airport-planning-the-master-plan/ Security and Customs. (2017). Retrieved March 26, 2017, from http://www.goldcoastairport.com.au/at-the-airport/security/ Skipp, A. (2006). Brisbane International Airport Master Plan, Retrieved from: https://www.bristolairport.co.uk/~/media/files/brs/about-us/bristol-airport-master-plan.ashx?la=en Stringfellow, A. (2013). Slideshare, Retrieved from: https://www.slideshare.net/Padrino80/challenges-airport-planning The challenge for airline security. (2017). Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.cnet.com/au/news/the-challenge-for-airline-security/ TheCostaRicaFrog. (2009, December 27). Northwest flight 253 Christmas airplane bombing attempt over Detroit. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygI3UZ65iyQ
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Essay Assessment Across Content Areas Literacy is an important issue in education. It is vital that students of all ages demonstrate the skills of reading, writing, and communication. Curriculums across the state of New Jersey as well as through out parts of the United States push for ways of including literacy processes in every content area. Administrators and school officials see written and oral communication as abilities students should utilize in their social studies, science, and mathematics classrooms, not just in language arts, English, and foreign language. In order to expand the literacy of all pupils, school curriculums now include journals, essay examinations, timed writing, response questions, and open-ended questions across all subjects. Math teachers must now grade open-ended questions, science students write in journals detailing their experiences in laboratory work, while teachers of United States history lean towards essay tests in contrast to the multiple-choice exams of the past. Es says provide numerous benefits for both students and teachers. They enhance literacy and sharpen writing skills in many ways. For a truly enriched and engaging curriculum, every teacher must include essay and/or open-ended assessments. Test experts say, Ã¢â¬Å"essay tests do the best job of tapping studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ higher-level thought processes and creativityÃ¢â¬ in compared to other assessments like true/false or fill-in-the-blank, common objective tests (Arends 238). Through this form of evaluation, students express their thoughts in a complex style that highlights their points and ideas most effectively. Essays allow a student to explain his or her position in an argument, opinion of a text, decision in a problem set, and so on. They are not black and white, which leaves room for creativity. The student must engage his or her cognitive processes so that he or she demonstrates the thesis clearly. Answering objective-based questions, such as fill-in-the-blank, test a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to recall material learned in class. Essays, on the other hand, require that students apply what they learned in various ways. Students must demonstrate an understanding of the subject, not just an abili ty to regurgitate facts sponged into their brains during a lesson. A student with the capacity to explain himself in an essay employs a higher-level of cognitive process than one asked to decide whether a statement is true or false.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
As a coherent economic theory, classical economics start with Smith, continues with the British Economists Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo. Although differences of opinion were numerous among the classical economists in the time span between SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s Wealth of Nations (1776) and RicardoÃ¢â¬â¢s Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817), they all mainly agreed on major principles. All believed in private property, free markets, and, in SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Å" The individual pursuit of private gain to increase the public good.Ã¢â¬ They shared SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s strong suspicion of government and his enthusiastic confidence in the power of self-interest represented by his famous Ã¢â¬Å"invisible hand,Ã¢â¬ which reconciled public benefit with personal quest of private gain. From Ricardo, classicists derived the notion of diminishing returns, which held that as more labor and capital were applied to land yields after a certain and not very advanced stage in the progress of agriculture steadily diminished. The central thesis of The Wealth of Nations is that capital is best employed for the production and distribution of wealth under conditions of governmental noninterference, or laissez-faire, and free trade. In SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s view, the production and exchange of goods can be stimulated, and a consequent rise in the general standard of living attained, only through the efficient operations of private industrial and commercial entrepreneurs acting with a minimum of regulation and control by the governments. To explain this concept of government maintaining laissez-faire attitude toward the commercial endeavors, Smith proclaimed the principle of the Ã¢â¬Å"invisible handÃ¢â¬ : Every individual in pursuing his or her own good is led, as if by an invisible hand, to achieve the best good for all. Therefore any interference with free competition by government is almost certain to be injurious. Although this view has undergone considerable modification by economists in the light of historical developments since SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s time, many sections of The Wealth of Nations notably those relating to the sources of income and the nature of capital, have continued to form the basis of theoretical study of the field of political economy. The Wealth of Nations has also served as a guide to the formulation of governmental economic policies. Malthus, on the other hand, in his book An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) imparted a tone of dreariness. MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢s main contribution to economics was his theory that a population tends to increase faster than the supply of food available for its needs.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The contribution of female authors towards the development of the novel is significant. Indeed it can be argued that feminine sensibility plays a key role here. G K Chesterton describes the novel as a feminine art form, and he explains that it is the female eye for homely detail, as well as the talent to depict the intricacies of relationships, that make it so (39). These qualities are important because they serve to counteract the male tendency towards philosophy and idealism. Such tendencies must be overcome because the novel is aiming for an individualistic and democratic voice which is beyond all factionalism. The search for an individual voice had been the aim of literature since the Protestant Reformation. It was the aim too of the Enlightenment; but the practical effect was only to introduce the rigid formality of classicism. So the constraints of the Church had been replaced by just another form of constraint. Such constraints were overcome in the end by the female prose writers, and gradually over a long period. In this respect we will examine the two writers Aphra Behn and Mary Shelley, separated by a century and a half. The former presages the advent of the novel, while the latter perfects the form and paves the way for the great Victorian age of the novel. Classicism was the key barrier to the development of the novel. All efforts towards informality were frowned upon by the stalwarts of Augustan literature, led by Dryden and Pope, so the novel was perforce directed underground. Here it flowered in the hands of the women writers, who were mostly ignored because they concentrated on sentimental romance, and appealing to woman readers alone. Daniel Defoe is now regarded as the first proper novelist, but it is plain to see that he has adopted a form established by the female writers, who produced mostly trifling and salacious romances. Such a description may be applied to Aphra BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s Love Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister, but it is also notable for being the first epistolary novel. Her reputation, however, rests on Oroonoko, a love story involving an African prince captured by slave traders. Though not yet a proper novel, it contains many innovations that point in that direction. Behn assumes a conversational tone with the readers in places, inspiring familiarity. It also contains an omniscient voice of narration, which was to become the most distinctive characteristic of the novel proper. However, she feels obliged to explain her omniscience, and so the narrator is tangentially involved in the story itself. She knows all the incidents in Africa because she has lived the slave plantation and has conversed with the African prince. By the time Mary Shelley writes Frankenstein, the novel form has almost come into its own element, and its history boasts such great novelists as Defoe, Fielding, Richardson, Sterne, Smollet and Austen. Nevertheless, ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s original contribution in not insignificant. The voice of the novel reflects Ã¢â¬Ëindividual expressionÃ¢â¬â¢, and this has been largely perfected by this point. Shelley goes on to tackle the theme of individualism itself. It is the story of a mad scientist who cuts himself off from the world in order to create a being from assembles and inanimate organs. We discover similarities between the project of the mad scientist and the project of the novelist giving life to his fictional creations. The novelist functions as an individual, and his is probably the loneliest occupation of all. At the same time it is his task to create individuals, purely from the imagination. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s theme is at heart the mutual dependency of creator and creature. Though she is outwardly concerned with the misuse of science, and of the terrible consequences of mechanization, the underlying theme remains that of individualism. In this sense we may interpret her novel as an exploration of the limits of the novel. In conclusion, female writers can be said to be largely responsible for the development of the novel from the Restoration onwards. The evolution of the novel has avoided the limelight, yet the novel has been the primary vehicle for the advance of individualism. Only with the Industrial revolution and the rise of democracy does the novel burst forth as the principal mode of literature. Aphra Behn and Mary Shelley were key proponents in novelÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Works Cited Behn, Aphra. Oroonoko. Ed. Janet M. Todd. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003. Chesterton, Gilbert Keith. The Victorian Age in Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: CollectorÃ¢â¬â¢s Library, 2004.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Global business environment is increasingly being determined by prevailing environmental concerns. Trade regulations between countries are being benchmarked on the decisions made on environmental policy. Even though there exists an underlying inadequacy in negotiating international trade agreements in conjunction with multilateral environment agreements, formulation of trade policy has been forced to move hand in hand with requisite environment policy creating a situation that only promotes a complimentary of the policies for sustainable economic development. In the same fray is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA which includes several guidelines that detail environmental related provisions. The accord as agreed provides trilateral cooperation on matters concerning the environment and it also contains specific provisions that seek to pressurize members to enforce environmental law. The United States and Mexico has also instituted a bilateral establishment called the Boarder Environment Cooperation Commission. Together with the North American Development Bank communities around the boarder areas are financed to enable them complete environment infrastructure projects. Despite the agreement these are still ongoing discussions on NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s possible environment effect, implementation of pending NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s provisions and border funding modalities (may Tinmann, 2000) During the negotiations carried out in the context of liberalizing investment and trade rules between the two countries, environmental issues arose due to the existence of a more stringent standards on one country while the other country had only weak environmental protection measures. Such differences could be challenged with notable success as non tariff barriers that only serve to stifle trade between the two countries. Another issue was whether the existence of weaker environment protection measures on one side could created an unfair competitive advantage and hence encourage businesses to relocate production to areas that are least regulated in terms of environmental protection measures. Strict environmental regulations on the United States soil pose a considerable non tariff trade barrier hence the requirement for the need of harmonization of environmental provisions, health and safety standards. Relocation of industries to least environmentally regulated zones created a new challenge with increasing population. To offset this a mechanism had to be put in place to regulate all border environmental projects. Under the auspices of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) on which NAFTA operates new environmental issues are arising. In 1991 a dispute arose after the United States banned importations of tuna as Mexico had violated GATTÃ¢â¬â¢s trade rules. The ban imposed under the Us Marine Mammal Protection Act sought to limit the killing or the causing of serious injury to dolphins together with other marine animals in the course of commercial fishing. Mexico contested the ban but the court order was not lifted. Following the hearings of the case it was proposed that congress would lift the ban temporarily and Canada made a 5 year moratorium commitment that stated on March 1, 1994. Presently proposed changes on key environmental provisions that affect trade are focusing on non tariff barriers and the expansion on GATT discipline for Agriculture. (Trade and the Environment, 1993) There is no certainty to the conclusion of NAFTA debates and discussions taking into account that they had stalled several times earlier. The effects of additional changes are likely to brew new wave of conflict between GATT and environmental provisions. The relationship between international environmental agreements and GATT is another concern. Included in the International environmental agreement are 17 multilateral environmental agreements. These agreements cover key environmental problems such as stratospheric ozone depletion, hazardous waste and endangered species. There is concern that other multilateral environmental agreements such as limits to green house gas emissions may be included in the trade agreements further straining Mexico trade as importation of products that do not comply with both the GATT provisions and multilateral environment provisions will be banned. At the moment it still remains to be seen whether another GATT member can successfully challenge a trade measure leveled upon it by another member in pursuant of the multilateral environmental agreements. The growth of conflicts may in the future discourage GATT from acquiring agreements that would make trade impossible in addition to making GATTÃ¢â¬â¢s resolutions ineffective and difficult to enforce (Trade and Environment, 1992). There is need to reduce the functions between trade and environmental concerns. The North American Free Trade Agreement seeks to increase economic activity in Mexico and Boarder regions of the United States by negotiating a trade agreement that is agreeable to all the trade partners. However, there are concerns that unless the agreement puts in place adequate environmental safeguards, additional economic growth would worsen the already serious environmental health problems. There are also concerns that these trade agreements may weaken or undermine the existing United States Environmental standards. MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to environmental legislation and protection and commitment to attaining high environmental compliance is important. The laxity of the Mexican authorities to enforce strict environmental standards has seen some United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ industries migrating to MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s duty free export zones. These factories relocate mainly to erode the strict United States Environmental Protection Standards and also to utilize cheap labor in Mexico. Their proximity to the United States markets creates a competitive advantage as compared to the industries operating in the United States If all trading partners agree and conduct environmental reviews affecting Trade agreements as a unified standard procedure the environment and underlying economic implications will be adequately analyzed through expert opinions and public debate. In line with environment, health and safety standard risks from traded products can be curtailed. However, this required a standardized method of that product risk assessment and testing is done strictly to the recommended stringent domestic and international guidelines. (Paul Cough, 1993) New interpretations of GATT guidelines could threaten domestic regulatory regimes hence posing a new risk to trading partners. There are environmental concerns that inadequate regulation and low levels of environmental regulation in pursuit of trade liberalization may be used as an incentive to attract foreign investment as the production costs would be very low compared to countries with stringent guidelines. There are those who argue that environmental problems have limited impact on international competitiveness however if countries could impose a large carbon tax aimed primarily at reducing the emission of green house gases, the impact would be considerably huge. Conflicting interests particularly the Trade and the Rio Declaration declares that all states have got the right and sovereign authority to exploit their resources according to their own national environmental and development policies so long as their activities do not offer an environmental threat to that of other states or areas beyond their jurisdiction. The underlying fact that some states might lower their environmental protection measures is a threat to agreements that struggle to foster free trade between countries. This paper analyzes such concerns and offers recommendations to the extent of the present regulatory frameworks. Border waste Trade between the United States and Mexico The United States border lies within the jurisdiction of six Mexican states and four United States. Even though each state preserves and governs its won jurisdiction there has always been a very central and longstanding environmental pollution issue that is exacerbated by industrial and municipal wastes being discharged to the rivers that flow from the Mexican frontiers to the United States. Mexican wastes municipal treatment system are obsolete or non existent. This is further worsened by companies that operate in a less strict environmental regulatory jurisdiction. These companies are inclusive of United States companies and they engage in illegal dumping of untreated wastes into the river systems. This has created a disparity in the levels of development as well as fresh concerns on priorities of development and trade with specificity to the use of underground and surface water that are becoming increasingly polluted. There is another problem of illegal dumping sites that pose a threat to health of inhabitants of the cities along the United States-Mexico border. The Border Environmental cooperation Agreement has been mandated to coordinate boarder water quality and sanitation services. However, disputes are ripe and every country is presenting its own interpretations of treaty. This has worsened the trade between countries as discussions and debates carried out under the auspices of NAFTA though fruitful have failed to provide an innovative, comprehensive and internationally binding agreement to forestall the potential health effects of continued trade.